The Mexican Army Cipher Disk (Cipher Machines That You Can Make and Use Book 1)
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This coup enabled U. Stimson, closed down Yardley's "Black Chamber. The primary intelligence agencies were the Army's Military Intelligence Division, the Navy's Office of Naval Intelligence, the State Department's various geographic area divisions, and the Justice Department's Federal Bureau of Investigation, but there were a number of others. Inter-service rivalry hampered effective cooperation between the intelligence officers of the Army and Navy.
Yet the armed forces did achieve major successes in signals intelligence.
Despite its limited, peacetime size and budget, the Army's code-breaking team in the Signal Intelligence Service finally broke the Japanese "Purple" cipher, Tokyo's main new diplomatic code, in September Under a joint agreement, the two services had worked on breaking the Japanese diplomatic code. But once the Army had made the breakthrough, their rivalry prevented them from cooperatively exploiting it.
Roosevelt had sent Donovan to Britain in July to provide an alternative source of information. In December , a month after Roosevelt had been elected to an unprecedented third term, the President sent Donovan across the Atlantic again, this time on a much broader inspection tour.
As he wrote to Secretary of the Navy Knox a month after his return from the Mediterranean: "Modern war operates on more fronts than battle fronts. Each combatant seeks to dominate the whole field of communications.
No defense system is effective unless it recognizes and deals with this fact. I mean these things especially: the interception and inspection commonly and erroneously called censorship of mail and cables; the interception of radio communication; the use of propaganda to penetrate behind enemy lines; the direction of active subversive operations in enemy countries.
The agencies resisted, and Roosevelt became increasingly irritated at being forced to arbitrate their bureaucratic squabbles. He also strongly advised the intelligence agencies to take a broad strategic perspective rather than their narrow parochial views of the growing international challenges facing the nation. Roosevelt and Churchill, despite their distaste for Joseph Stalin's brutal communist regime, agreed to aid the Soviet empire, because it now bore the brunt of the fighting against Germany.
Eventually the U. Priority was given to the defeat of Nazi Germany, seen as a greater threat because of its domination of the resources of Europe. The Allied offensive plan envisioned obtaining naval control of the sea lanes, conducting strategic air bombardment of enemy industry, encouraging resistance movements to undermine the enemy's control in occupied countries, and finally launching massive ground campaigns to defeat the enemy armies. The groundwork had been laid over the past year, but in the spring or early summer of , the President had asked a Cabinet committee consisting of Secretary of War Stimson, Secretary of the Navy Knox, and Attorney General Robert Jackson, who oversaw the FBI, to make a recommendation.
According to Donovan his meeting with the committee led it to recommend his idea to the President. There had been a flurry of activity before the final decision was reached. Donovan had submitted his first formal proposal to the President at the end of May A number of people, with whom Donovan discussed the idea, endorsed it. Consequently, they joined in encouraging a centralized American intelligence agency.
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Godfrey met Donovan in New York and then journeyed to Washington, where the British admiral found the chiefs of the various intelligence agencies still unwilling to cooperate with each other. In desperation, Godfrey obtained an appointment with the President and on 10 June urged Roosevelt to create a centralized intelligence service. The President was typically loquacious, but Godfrey persevered, recalling, "At last I got a word in edgeways.
I said it a second time, and a third time -- one intelligence security boss, not three or four.
He had added two new paragraphs: one on the desirability of common, accurate economic information, and the other emphasizing the need for accurate foreign information in order to use radio most effectively as a weapon to demoralize the enemy. At p. It was a lengthy meeting and no minutes were taken, but it is clear afterward that Roosevelt had agreed to a new intelligence organization, and he had chosen Donovan to head it. According to the Stephenson, Donovan said he had accepted appointment as Coordinator of Information "after [a] long discussion wherein all points were agreed.
He said the new agency would coordinate intelligence and would also conduct offensive special operations; Donovan would report directly to the President and would have the rank of major general. But it was clear that the President had taken an historic step in establishing a central, national intelligence agency and, at least indirectly, authorizing it to use clandestine funds as well as covert methods. He would include both gathering and analysis of intelligence as well as acting upon that information through special covert operations.
The President simultaneously appointed Donovan to head it. The agency would be entirely civilian until the inclusion of military personnel after became the Office of Strategic Services OSS in June Donovan will collect and assemble information and data bearing on national security from the various departments and agencies of the Government and will analyze and collate such materials for the use of the President and such other officials as the President may designate.
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Donovan would ultimately make the most of the executive order and include what he and the British had envisioned: offensive action, including psychological warfare, political warfare, subversive operations, guerrilla warfare, espionage, and sabotage. These rivals derided the Wall Street lawyer and most of the civilian associates he recruited to run the COI and later the OSS as rank amateurs in the fields of intelligence, counter-intelligence, and military operations. Even six months later, Roosevelt was still trying to explain to the press that such rumors were totally false.
Edgar Hoover had fought vigorously against the COI, and its creation represented one of the major bureaucratic defeats of his long career.
In the space-tight capital, he obtained a few rooms and telephones, and with half a dozen assistants began to recruit an organization. It was a acre, six-building complex at the far western end of E Street between that and Constitution Avenue, which ran parallel to E street, and bordered by 23rd Street to the east and 25th Street to the west.
As the organization expanded during the war, OSS established additional administrative and storage facilities in a nearby former public skating rink and warehouses down the hill. Motorists driving along the then Rock Creek Park Drive generally paid no attention to the anonymous looking governmental structures scattered around a generally, rather disreputable industrial area.
Because he saw members of his agency as learning their way in new forms of warfare, he was more interested in initiative, innovation, and results than abidance by the rules and being held to strict accountability. He told subordinates that he would rather have them use their imagination, try new things, and take risks, even if it meant that they would make mistakes and sometimes fail, rather than simply to stick cautiously to traditional ways of doing things. Donovan was not interested in military expertise as much as people who could think quickly and clearly and find innovative solutions to difficult situations.
He asked for bold, new thinking and action, and, to a surprising extent, he got them. He was an inspiring leader: visionary, bright, brave, quick to make decisions, open and fair. Schlesinger, Jr. He was adventuresome. He was not a conventional figure.
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They felt a sense of uniqueness, of special quality, of membership in an elite group. No wonder that the OSS selected for its emblem, its shoulder patch, a golden spear point. Donovan relied upon his personal contacts with people he or his subordinates trusted, and he drew most of his top aides from prestigious colleges and universities, businesses, and law firms, including his own. In that rush to service, Donovan's COI and its successor, the OSS, drew such a disproportionate number of socially prominent men and women that some wags claimed the initials of O.
As early as June , Donovan had obtained the support of the Librarian of Congress, poet Archibald MacLeish, to allow the prospective organization to use the library's extensive materials in analyzing the Axis' strengths and weaknesses. Baxter and Donovan quickly recruited noted scholars in various disciplines from prestigious colleges and universities and put them to work in the Library of Congress Among the early recruits were Harvard historian William L.
McConnaughy, President of Wesleyan University, and many others. Within a few months, Donovan added a Visual Presentation Branch, which would include Hollywood directors John Ford, famous for his westerns and other epics, and Merian C. At the same time, Donovan warned that additional funds for the secret operations would be needed later. The Budget planners certainly underestimated Donovan.
On December 8, , the day after the Pearl Harbor attack. Congress granted these to the President and a few other designated officials to spend solely on their personal responsibility. They did not have to disclose the specific purpose for which the funds were used, and these secret expenditures were not subject to detailed audit. In practice, Donovan had only to sign a note certifying that the funds had been used properly for national security purposes. This fiscal authority, augmented by the espionage authority that Donovan received from the armed forces, allowed him to conduct a wide variety of secret activities, from hiring foreign spies, to sending American agents behind enemy lines with bags full of currency, gold or silver coins, or other inducements for recruiting and purchasing supplies for indigenous guerrillas, for bribes for guards or turncoat officers, for theft, assassination attempts and a host of other clandestine purposes.
As a CIA historian later put it, unvouchered funds were "the lifeblood of clandestine operations. Neither the names of the OSS personnel in the field who made the secret payments, nor the identity of those who received them was revealed for the record.
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There was no detailed accounting of that kind of disbursement. Lovell, chief of Research and Development. Morgan of J. Lane Rehm, financial genius of one of the largest investment trusts in the United States. Together they performed the delicate task of approving or denying requests for use of unvouchered funds and assessing reports on their expenditure in secret activities. When the COI was established in July , Donovan focused first on building an administrative staff and then on recruiting college faculty, who were area experts, for research and analysis of available information, and setting up a propaganda system.
But even before the U. One was David K. Bruce, a diplomat married to one of the Pittsburgh Mellons, who was allegedly the wealthiest woman in America.