Guida alla fiscalità di Cina, India e Vietnam (Italian Edition)

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Opposition to corruption and governance reform, therefore, attracted wide support throughout the later stages of the run up to the general election, and there was an opportunity for the opposition to go on the offensive in order to secure votes based on programmatic appeals. BN seemed relatively strong in , when, as noted, it comfortably won two by-elections. The lack of government accountability led to electoral backlash, facilitated by the fact there was a viable opposition.

Much of the hostility was directed at Najib and his wife Rosmah Mansor, who was spending excessive amounts on luxuries. BN pursued two strategies in order to win the election — increasing ethnic appeals and an authoritarian tightening of law enforcement. I argue, however, that these strategies were inadequate for deflecting attention from the scandals, as it became clear that UMNO was pursuing them at the expense of programmatic reforms and greater inclusion, which much of the population desired.

Appeals to ethnicity had long been a pillar of legitimacy for BN, but polarization grew during this period.

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They held various publicity stunts and protests throughout and By focusing on Malay dominance BN did not invest as much effort on programmatic appeals. As argued by Hew Wei Weng of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, polarizing tactics were not enough as PH could also compete for the votes of pious urban Muslims by mobilizing discourses on political Islam.

I argue instead that this strategy undermined BN legitimacy as the new laws became too draconian, upsetting the balance between authoritarian control and democratic legitimacy. In early June Najib introduced the National Security Council Act,[] which allowed him to implement emergency powers at any designated security site.

This message quickly emerged as a promising campaign discourse for PH, which argued BN was curtailing freedom of speech and dissent. Older laws were also used throughout this period to create an atmosphere of BN control, but were decried as desperate measures by the opposition. Cartoonist Zulkiflee Anwar Haque Zunar was arrested for sedition, but actually for his political cartoons lampooning the prime minister. Posts that were meant to be independent were filled with political appointees. The re-delineation, which was done with the evident goal of favouring the electoral prospects of BN, was passed in parliament just five weeks before the election.

However, the appeals from the EC against the stay orders were fast-tracked in court, and the state governments were ruled against. The Electoral Commission went out of its way in its attempts to assist BN in the election.

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The nominations were only confirmed on 28 April, which meant many overseas Malaysians could not return their postal ballots in time. Domestic policies employed to strengthen BN power were practices involving patronage and distribution of financial incentives. There were accusations of vote-buying, abuse of government machinery, kickbacks, and biased institutions.

While the domestic media was increasingly co-opted by BN in an attempt to silence any critical voice, this did not prevent a proliferation of news concerning the scandals in which BN was involved. Much of the traditional media favoured the ruling regime due to various forms of formal and informal ownership. In , access to the Malaysian Insider web-site was blocked to Malaysian users, although it remained accessible for users outside Malaysia. In this situation, the website was forced to shut down a year later for commercial reasons. While there was much hope of a new Malaysia becoming a more democratic, transparent and efficiently governed state as promised by PH, I argue that the transformation faced many obstacles throughout There was an almost immediate change in the greater freedom of the press;[] bans against the Sarawak Report and the Medium were revoked by the MCMC.

Mahathir, for example, was insulted online and a police report filed, but the case was dismissed.

Mahathir, for example, initially announced his intention to be minister of education, which went against the PH pledge of the PM holding only one portfolio. There was a great amount of criticism, and Mahathir quickly changed course. The government has also been extremely critical of corruption. His arrest came less than a week after police announced that 12, items of jewellery, handbags and suitcases full of cash were among the list of items seized at raids of properties belonging to him.

After repeated arrests and six court appearances Najib faced 42 charges including counts of money laundering. Zahid was arrested on various corruption charges. There also seems to be a greater movement towards good governance. Lim Guan Eng, who is ethnically Chinese, was given the influential minister of finance portfolio. Tommy Thomas, ethnically Indian and a Christian, was the first ever non-Malay attorney general.

Success in transforming Malaysia, however, has been hampered by the limited ability of the ruling coalition with regard to meeting expectations, leadership divisions, the inheritance of BN-leaning institutions, as well as the role of ethnicity. Moreover, many questions surrounded the return of Anwar.


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There were some vocal criticisms of this process, with some activists arguing it was undemocratic for the seat to be made available for Anwar. The show of unity on display at Port Dickson, however, masked some problems for PH. As noted above, Mahathir has promised that Anwar will be the next prime minister. Originally it was suggested that this would be after two years, but Mahathir seems to have backtracked and has since said it could be longer.

Anwar has stated that it is his job to support Mahathir, and that while it was not easy for him to agree to cooperate with him, he was satisfied that Mahathir had accepted the reform agenda of PH and was atoning for past mistakes. Lim Kit Siang argues that Mahathir is aware of his past mistakes, however, and that all seems to be forgiven between them.

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The coalition is also struggling to formulate a collective policy with regards to Malay rights and Islamic values. These were prioritized by Bersatu and reaffirmed at their second annual general assembly in December ,[] but questions remain how these can be reconciled with a progressive agenda. Contributing to the progressive agenda, it was hoped that ICERD would serve to progress human rights in Malaysia and advance the creation of an inter-ethnic society. Some have called for the university to be opened to non-Bumiputera, but others have suggested that this change would be too fast.

However, despite their crisis, BN and UMNO, soon after the elections, began to show signs of recovery, mounting an effective opposition to the new government and proving to be an obstacle to PH meeting its promises. Indeed, even its party-members were disillusioned by the extent to which the party was acting in the interests of a small minority.

Both Najib and Zahid face prosecution. Indeed, Zahid quickly stepped down following further defections. The increasing appeals to ethno-nationalism as a basis for support can be seen in three events other than the selection of Zahid at the UMNO elections.

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On 8 December there was Himpunan Gathering where 60, people rallied. Together with other events which have angered portions of Malay society, this shows that PH is so far unable to reconcile differences over the role of Islam and Malay privileges with a progressive agenda. By focusing on ethno-nationalistic issues, UMNO cannot fail to gain support, while at the same time highlighting the weakness of the coalition.

This resonates with many Malay voters. Conservative Islamic followers feel increasingly marginalized and point out the tolerance shown by the current government as the reason for their feelings of insecurity.


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  4. There has been some transformation in the economy, but the uncertainty that characterized the period has not diminished. The diminishing gas and oil prices, on which much of the government revenue is dependent, was of concern to Malaysia. Interestingly, however, the GDP per capita rate of growth was on a steady positive trend since The rate of growth of per capita GDP, which was 2. Lower income households[] have endured spiralling costs of living, of concern even before the election.

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    These costs are related to rising commodity prices, falling prices of saleable goods such as palm oil, and an extremely expensive property market. This higher cost of living has only served to heighten economic vulnerabilities. While income inequality has decreased, Malaysia remains in the top tier of those countries suffering from inequality in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, International Labour Organization estimates suggest that youth unemployment reached Pakatan Harapan promised to solve these problems through a wide programme of reforms, and it is hoped that this might raise much of the population out of near-poverty.

    Another measure to tackle cost of living were proposed fuel subsidies and initiatives to build affordable housing. However, the continuing massive drop in commodity prices, such as rubber and palm oil, was creating problems for those dependent on agriculture, further alienating rural voters and preventing economic advancement for these populations. Race inevitably plays a role in economics just as it does in politics, and this shows no sign of changing despite expectations that PH would implement a needs-and-merit based economic policy. In an attempt to make the economy more open Lim Guan Eng affirmed an open tender policy for federal public procurement.

    However, the government was careful to show that it would not side-line Malay contractors.